Sed tutorial for Linux administrator (Daily stream editing task)

Sed tutorial
Sed tutorial for Linux administrator

 

Sed tutorial Introduction

This sed tutorial is a part of the Sed command in UNIX with examples article.
Sed is a very powerful stream editing tool. In this tutorial we will cover the most common and important usage of sed tool for everyday Linux administration. It is advisable to learn and practice each sed examples given in this sed tutorial to get hands-on the sed command.
You will find that all the given sed examples are used for daily stream editing tasks in Linux and UNIX.

Most common usage of the tool

  • Print
  • Count
  • Insert
  • Replace
  • Append
  • Delete

Other important uses for Linux administration

  • Checking log files
  • Cleaning config files


                                        Sed tutorial for how to print

Note: Do not use '-i' option , use it only if you are sure and happy with the output. Because it makes the permanent changes to the file.

Option 'p' in sed is used for priniting.


Display what is inside the file

Display the whole content of the file by the following sed command.

$ sed -n 'p' sed_file.txt


Sed print nth line

Display Line number 2 with this command.

$ sed -n '2p' sed_test.txt

Simillarly to display line number 3,4 and 5 use 3p,4p and 5p respectively.

Sed print line range

Display range of lines from 2 to 4 with the given sed command.

$ sed -n '2,4p' sed_test.txt 
Line 2
Line 3
LIne 4

Display lines from 4 to 6.

$ sed -n '4,6p' sed_test.txt 
LIne 4
Line 5
Line 6


Sed print multiple range of lines

Display multiple range of lines at a time. For example to display lines from 2 to 4, 1 to 3 and 5 to 6 at the same time, use the below given sed example.

$ sed -n -e '2,4p' -e '1,3p' -e '5,6p' sed_test.txt



                                                               

                                      Sed tutorial for how to count



Sed count lines in your file

The below command actually count the last line number in the file.

$ = Represents last line in the file.

$ sed -n '$=' sed_test.txt

Sed display line number with its sentence

This will display all the lines with its line numbers.

$ sed '=' sed_test.txt

Display line numbers of matching pattern
$ sed -n '/brown/,/example/=' sed_test.txt


                                                             

                                       Sed tutorial for how to insert



Insert spaces between lines

You can use sed command to insert spaces between lines. The option capial 'G' is used to insert space between lines.

$ sed G sed_test.txt


Similarly, to insert two spaces between lines, use 'G;G' and for three spaces 'G;G;G'

$ sed 'G;G' sed_test.txt


                                                             

                                     Sed tutorial for how to replace


Sed replace string in file

The below sed command will show you how to replace any string in a file. The below sed command will search and replace the string "Line" with "Line number".

$ sed 's/Line/Line number/g' sed_test.txt


Sed replace  multiple spaces with one

If multiple blank spaces occurs between the words in a file, replace it with a single space by the following sed replace command.

$ sed 's/ */ /g' sed_test.txt


Sed command to change case

With sed command you can change the case of letters lower case to upper case and vice versa.

To change the words from lower case to upper case use the following sed command.

$ sed -e 's/\(.*\)/\U\1/' sed_test.txt

Similarly to change from upper to lower case use the following.

$ sed -e 's/\(.*\)/\L\1/' sed_test.txt


Replace letter to uppercase after period

You can use sed command to uppercase first letter of the first word in a file or that comes after a period (.). See the below example.

$ sed -E 's/(^[a]|\. [a-z])/\U&\E/g' sed_test.txt


                                             
                                                               

                                     Sed tutorial for how to append


Sed Append

The below command will append the string 'and black' after each matched string 'brown'.

$ sed 's/\(brown \)/\1 and black /' sed_test.txt


Appending after given line number

Add string after particular line. The following command will add a sentence "New line" after line number 1. Similarly you can add new sentence after line number 2, 3 or 4.

$ sed '1 a\New line' sed_test.txt


Appending at the beginning of line

To append sentence at the beginning of line.

$ sed '1s/^/Beginning of line\n/' sed_test.txt


Appending at the end of the line

To append sentence at the ending of line.

$ sed '$ a\Ending of line' sed_test.txt


                                     
                                                               

                                    Sed tutorial for how to delete



Sed delete lines (contents)


If you want to delete the whole content of any file, consider using the below sed UNIX command.

$ sed 'd' sed_test.txt

The above command will delete the whole content of the file, but yes you would say there are other commands available in Linux and UNIX which can be used for the same purpose. Some examples are the following.

# echo -n "" > filename
# cp /dev/null filename
# > filename
# cat /dev/null > filename
# dd if=/dev/null of=filename

All the above commands do the same thing, that is erasing the contents of the file. In reality it is just copying null to your file.
I have no rivalries against using the above given commands, you can use it for practice if you want.

But what if you want to delete second line, third line or fourth line from the file? In that case use the sed command in a simple way as given below.

$ sed '1d' filename //Deleting first line
$ sed '2d' filename //Deleting second line
$ sed '3d' filename //Deleting third line
$ sed '4d' filename //Deleting fourth line
$ sed '3,6d' filename //Deleting lines 3 to 6


                                                       

                                                         

                                                  OTHER USES


I have added two other and most important use of sed command for stream editing task in Linux and UNIX.

Checking log files

Every Linux administrator has to check log files every day. This can be a very time consuming activity as these logs contains logs of many dates and time.
Sed comes here as a life saver. The below sed command can be used to check logs of certain dates. For example to check all the logs for October 4 do the following.

# sed -n '/^Oct 4/p' /var/log/messages

Also see article on Linux find file command

Cleaning config files

You already know the config files are full of comments.
For any Linux administrator to make your config files more comprehensive, the best idea would be making a copy of the original config files and removing all the commented lines from the config file.


Below is the insight of 'rsyslog.conf' file.

# cat rsyslog.conf
# Log all kernel messages to the console.
# Logging much else clutters up the screen.
#kern.* /dev/console
# Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher.
# Don't log private authentication messages!
*.info;local0.none;local1.none;mail.none;auth.none;authpriv.none;cron.none /var/log/messages
# The authpriv file has restricted access.
authpriv.* /var/log/secure
# Log all the mail messages in one place.
mail.* -/var/log/maillog

Now run the below command to remove all the commented lines from the file and also create a backup of the original file.

# sed -i.$(date +%F) '/^#/d;/^$/d' rsyslog.conf

List your current directory to be sure that the backup has been created.

# ls
rsyslog.conf rsyslog.conf.2016-10-11

See how 'rsyslog.conf' file looks after comented lines removed from the file.

# cat rsyslog.conf
$OmitLocalLogging on
$IMJournalStateFile imjournal.state
*.info;local0.none;local1.none;mail.none;auth.none;authpriv.none;cron.none /var/log/messages
authpriv.* /var/log/secure
mail.* -/var/log/maillog
cron.* /var/log/cron
*.emerg :omusrmsg:*
uucp,news.crit /var/log/spooler
local7.* /var/log/boot.log
local0.* -/var/log/zimbra.log
local1.* -/var/log/zimbra-stats.log



This is it with the tutorial Sed tutorial for Linux administrator (Daily stream editing task)

Also see:
Rsync exclude directory (folder), files in Linux with examples
Open source mail server - set up Rainloop open source mail server

 

 

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